Please feel free to send us an E-Mail with a detailed description or an image if possible , and we will try to help you find out what your item is. Spade money is a complex subject, but there are only a few general forms into which most examples fall, the most common of which are currently listed more will be added soon. Click on the form that is closest to your specimen to link to our general discussion of the varieties of that form. If you have an example of a spade money type not currently listed on this site, please feel free to send us an E-Mail with a detailed description or image, and we will try to provide you with more information.
Knife money is less complex a subject than Spade money and most examples fall into just a few general forms, the most common of which are currently listed more will be added soon. If you have an example of a knife money type not currently listed on this site, please feel free to send us an E-Mail with a detailed description or image, and we will try to provide you with more information. This part of the attribution guide is by far the most complicated as there are over a thousand types and it will be some time before we can include them all.
We will be adding the most common types first, as they are the ones that most people will want to look up. The second and third columns in coins table are simply to provide reading with a little additional information. The second column is "Simplified Chinese". Chinese order to make learning a little easier for the Chinese people, some of the chinese complicated Chinese coins which take many strokes to write have been "simplified" to have fewer strokes. You will see that in most cases the "charm inscription", which uses the old traditional way of writing characters and is dating in use today in Hong Kong and Taiwan, is the same or very similar to the "simplified" version.
The third column provides the pronunciation of the inscription or legend using pinyin which dating the romanization system used in China. The fourth column, as you have seen, provides the translation. How to read Two Character and Eight Character Inscriptions Reading an inscription with two characters follows the same coins rules as reading a four reading inscription. Chinese the example to the left, the characters should be read top to bottom:.
If you are successful in your search Row 4 , you should find that the meaning is "happiness and longevity". Dating charm is discussed in more detail at chinese charms.
Some charms and amulets have eight character symbol inscriptions such coins the example with the left. In reality, these are just two inscriptions of four characters each. Therefore, you would use the same technique we have just learned except that you will be doing it twice, once for each of the four character inscriptions.
Since the inscription is circular with equal spacing between characters the problem is discovering which Chinese character is the first character in either of the inscriptions. This is not really unusual since ancient Chinese texts actually use reading punctuation as we know it. Basically, you will just have to keep guessing and trying different characters to see which one successfully begins one of the four-character inscriptions in the list.
Coins only advice I can give as to dating which is the first character in either of the two four-character inscriptions is to try to determine the "top" of the charm. In the example to the left, you would not be able to decide this by looking guide this side of coins charm.
You should scan down dating "Charm Inscription" column looking for any inscription that begins with the first character of the inscription. Of course, those who can read Chinese and are familiar with Chinese coins, or have reference books available, can easily identify a particular coin. Major reforms were implemented, redistribution of farm lands, including making the penal code and administrative rules fairer, more lenient and simpler, taxation reform, and a major coinage reform. The people would, of course, be familiar with the "period title" in use by the emperor. Many recent books use the modern Pinyin transcription.
If you are fortunate, however, the other side of the charm may have pictures which would help you determine the "top". In this example, one of the four character inscriptions begins at the 12 o'clock position.
The dating difference is the second character so it is important to make coins that all the characters are correct in their proper order. In this particular example we were very "lucky" that one of the four character inscriptions began at the very top of the charm.
In many cases this will not be dating case and chinese will just chinese to try starting with another character until you are successful. The reverse side of this charm happens to be most interesting. How to Read Inscriptions Written Horizontally. I relate the story here because it illustrates that even native Chinese can have difficulty in understanding how Chinese coin inscriptions should be read.
Please see Emergence of Chinese Charms for many unusual examples of wu zhu. From this time on, Chinese currency would no longer be named after the "weight" of the coin such as had been the case with the ban liang , wu zhu , etc. Major reforms were implemented, redistribution of farm lands, including making the penal code and administrative rules fairer, more lenient and simpler, taxation reform, and a major coinage reform. A new, well made, broad-rimmed Wu Chu coin with distinct characters was introduced. The Dynasty conquered northern Vietnam and made a disastrous attempt to conquer Korea.
Large numbers of conscripts were needed for the construction projects and to fight wars, leading to a shortage of agricultural workers.
The most commonly encountered Chinese cash date from the Ching Dynasty and have the Manchurian "BOO" character on the reverse left hand side. IDENTIFICATION GUIDE. The identification of Chinese cast coins can be difficult, even for those who can read the characters. For the rest of us it can be a very.
The heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties needed for the ambitious wars and construction projects led to widespread revolts and the dynasty was overthrown in AD. The names of Chinese emperors can be confusing - because one Emperor will have many names. Like everyone, they have personal name, but that is often different than their birth name.
The reign title is the name that appears on their coins. Some emperors used one reign title for their entire reign.